2021.12.03 20:04 psyduckdabest Yall dont even know about this bruh
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2021.12.03 20:04 Minimum_Efforts [OC] The Five Love Languages for Men: How Men Communicate Affection [28:13]
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2021.12.03 20:04 mario_almada Got a call from a recruiter and he got mad.
2021.12.03 20:04 caralhudovoador Ignorados: Brasil tem 50 milhões de pessoas vivendo na pobreza
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2021.12.03 20:04 adalempire I want to know which engine is better for my project
I know how to use unity somewhat and are learning godot right now.
The project in mind is a colony sim like rimworld but with the focus being on expanding militarily. The main feature is organized troop movements and strategies, the way you organize and command your colonists can make or break you people.
You might have to choose between saving one of your grain towns on the edge of your lands or defending a key port from amphibious assault.
It is also planned to have an era system similar to civ but its hidden. As the game goes on the colonies merge into small kingdoms and empires and the tech they use goes from old melee weapons to muskets and cannons.
I don't want to divulge the basic story but it will be more sparse and it will act more like a story generatior with story tellers akin to rimworld.
I wanted to know which engine is preferred for this project, also it will be using pixel art and graphics.
It will be a long term project and will start more humble and build up to what I described, the issue isn't time but stability and long term growth.
I excluded unreal because I don't need its power and graphics, I want something easy to use and godot's growth potential has made it a worthy second possible choice to me.
No "either or" answers please, I get that both could work but I want specific advice on which to choose, I am open to either but need to pick one so I can start development, I am starting to work on tilemaps and want to finish basic world gen asap.
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2021.12.03 20:04 Sombraero Don't booli the sad hamster
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2021.12.03 20:04 ITotallydotaxfraud I AM NOT GOING TO BE ONLINE
Not going to get into it but Grandpa just passed and I will not be online for a while… Hope you all can wait a week or 2 for me to get back and start back up again.
submitted by ITotallydotaxfraud to CreaturesofSonaria [link] [comments]
2021.12.03 20:04 Faddi2022 How far can Xiao with out Bennett stand agenst other team comps . So his team would be Xiao c0 jean c0 diona fichel
2021.12.03 20:04 Zennred A dress for entertaining
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2021.12.03 20:04 ContextSuch6051 Anybody see what this tweet was before it got deleted?
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2021.12.03 20:04 politicalthrow99 Another blast from the past from the Ernst Thalmann of the Hamptons
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2021.12.03 20:04 Rocas21 GIVING AWAY 10 000 NFT 🎁FREE NFT🎁 UPVOTE ⬆️ AND JOIN DISCORD AND VERIFY AND YOU WILL GET ONE . IF YOU DID JOIN AND VERIFIED (MUST ) IN 24 HOURS YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR NFT :D
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2021.12.03 20:04 JLHuston Happy 6th Night of Hanukkah!
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2021.12.03 20:04 tekkenfanaticlfc Charlotte flair
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2021.12.03 20:04 movin4call Does it concern you that so-called mega churches can seem a bit shallow in teaching?
Something I noticed with a lot of these mega churches are that the pastors deliver messages that are very, very easy to digest. It's not complicated, it's very practical, and doesn't go too too deep into Scripture. A lot of these sermons are relevant to today's society, including mental health, your emotions, dating, etc.
I am blessed by many of these sermons but I do wonder if the teaching seems a bit shallow? The messages are catered to be relevant but rarely dig DEEP into the Word. I don't know if that's a product of catering the message to a wide audience where some are long-time believers and some are newbies.
I guess my concern stems from the fact that if you were to omit the Bible verse/passage for the sermon, it could feel like I am at a self-improvement seminar instead.
I don't know. Maybe I'm thinking too much of this. Thoughts?
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2021.12.03 20:04 shirouu-kun casual shenhe
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2021.12.03 20:04 bobbobberstein Naked Shorts Hiding in Plain Sight? Basic math indicates shorts never closed and there are now at least 325.9M short positions in GameStop, or 419% short interest on GME’s float
Daily volume data, including short volume data for 81% of all GME stock trades since January 2021, suggest short positions were never at any time fully closed and that short interest on GME is now, at a minimum, 3 times higher than peak levels reported for January. This minimum calculation for short interest is grounded in a tenuous (unlikely) assumption that as many short positions as mathematically possible are closed each and every trading day. Relaxing this assumption results in rapidly ballooning estimates for current short interest.
Overview of short interest
Self-reported and always out-of-date Short interest is the number of shares that have been sold short but have not been covered or closed out (i.e., bought back). Short interest %, arguably more important, is that total number of short positions divided by the total number of shares—either shares outstanding (all issued shares whether owned by company insiders or the public) or the float—the number of shares available to the public (e.g., institutions and individual investors) for trading.
Twice a month, FINRA (a private agency that regulates exchange markets) requires that firms report every short interest position in every security (i.e., stock) in every single account. So, short interest data shared by FINRA are supposed to be complete, but the data are always out of date and self-reported to a private corporation that is not directly accountable to the public, but rather overseen by the SEC.
Figure 1 - That face when people ask about the latest short interest you self-reported to FINRA
Short interest in January 2021
Reported short interest from FINRA and others on GameStop now stands at ~10%. The situation was very different in January 2021. Though data-driven estimates for exact short interest % vary both in range and by date, they all agree that short interest in GME exceeded 100% of shares outstanding in January 2021. This means some bona fide shares had been sold short more than once and/or market makers (e.g., Citadel Securities) had created and lent synthetic shares but had yet to locate and take claim of real shares in order to close out the synthetics. Table 1 provides a summary of the available estimates and a synthesis of them to create the starting point for calculations to come.
Table 1 - Data-driven estimates of short interest in GameStop | January 2021
Daily minimum # of new short positions
Each trading day, some percentage of the total volume of trades on a stock is sold short—not just sold, but rather borrowed and then sold. On days in which the volume sold short exceeds 50% of total volume, by sheer mathematical force, aggregate short positions increase. For example, let’s say that a total of 100 shares of a certain stock are traded in a single day. If 60 of those shares are sold short, then at the end of the day, the minimum # of new shorts created is 20. The remaining daily volume would allow for 40 short positions to be closed (i.e., bought back) but we must not forget about the 60 also created on this day. This is perhaps best understood visually: Figure 2 Short selling more than 50% of a stock on a trading day increases total short interest.
Figure 2- Short selling more than 50% of volume on a trading day increases total short interest
In the visual, the white bar, if overlapped on top of the red bar, would leave 20 red shares uncovered, meaning net total short interest increased. It is mathematically impossible for total short interest to stay level or decrease on such days—it must go up.
Daily maximum # of eliminated short positions
On days in which the % of volume sold short is below 50% of the total volume, it is possible for aggregate short positions to decrease. Let us now invert the example but stick with 100 total shares of a particular stock traded in a single day. If 30 of those shares are sold short, then at the end of the day, the maximum # of eliminated shorts is 40. Yes, the remaining volume allows for 70 short positions to be closed (i.e., bought back), but we must also account for the 40 that were created this day. Here is the visual illustration:
Figure 3 - Opportunities to reduce short interest emerge on days when short sale volume is less than 50% of total volume
In the visual, the red bar, if doubled, would leave some white space uncovered, meaning it is theoretically possible on this day for total short interest to be reduced. Because the 30 shares sold short would first need to be closed before short interest can be reduced, the maximum window for closing out short positions is confined to the final 40 shares.
Since January 4th, the first day of trading in 2021, 59% of GameStop’s volume has been sold short. On most trading days then, 85% of them to be precise, the % of volume sold short has exceeded 50% of the total volume—which means that the net outcome on most days is an increase in aggregate short positions. As shown in Table 2, the likelihood that short volume exceeds 50% of total volume declines as daily volume increases. On low volume days, it is almost always the case that short volume exceeds 50% of total volume.
Table 2 - GameStop volume sold short by range of total daily volume | January 4th - November 26th, 2021
Identifying the market terrain where short positions can be closed – The incredible power of buy and hold
Stock trade orders are routed to one of many different venues for execution. As summarized by Nasdaq, almost all retail trades (i.e., those of individual investors) are routed “off-exchange” by brokers to a trade report facility (TRF). Why? Market makers, such as Citadel Securities, who operate the facilities pay brokers to send them the trades for execution. By temporarily holding orders in a TRF (for even just a couple of seconds) before execution and concurrently deploying practices such as (a) algorithmic trading designed to nudge market prices and (b) drawing from their own cache of stocks to complete trades (a practice called “internalizing”), market makers manage to execute retail trades at the quoted price or better, reward brokers for sending the order, and generate their own direct cut on the deal. At first blush, the feat is remarkable and laudable—Citadel Securities would tell you so. A closer examination of mechanisms at work (e.g., executing sell orders on exchange to lower stock prices and executing buy orders off exchange to limit stock price increases) suggest that individual retail investors, can be left in a net unfavorable position—even if their trade was executed at as good as a price or better than what they agreed to.
According to Nasdaq, ~ 1/3rd of trades for all stocks are executed off-exchange in TRFs, including the ~12% of trades executed in dark pools—exclusive TRFs available only to institutions that allow for trades to be made without others seeing them (or “in the dark”) before the trade is complete. Critics of dark pools note that they obscure price discovery and enable abusive tactics.
Figure 4 - Distribution of trades in US Market | Oct - Nov 2018; credit to Nasdaq
The distribution of trades executed for shares of GameStop differs from the picture shown above. As shown in Figure 5, 42% of GameStop trades are executed at off-exchange TRFs, but only 8% make their way to dark pools. Daily volume also shapes the distribution of trades with off exchange percentages generally increasing whenever daily volume increases.
Figure 5 - Comparison of where GameStop trades are routed for execution
Why does this matter? Acknowledging and accounting for high levels of off-exchange TRF execution for GameStop trades is important in this analysis for two reasons: First, as noted by Nasdaq, it represents the arena or terrain in which most retail orders are executed. Indeed, the volume in off-exchange TRFs is mostly comprised of retail trade orders. The outsized use of off-exchange ETFs to execute Gamestop trades is a pattern that evidence retails strong and outsized support for GameStop. “Retail owns the float”.
Second, and more critical to this analysis itself, trades for GameStop executed in the TRF space are overwhelming buy orders. Though publicly available data address only the number of trade orders executed each day rather than specific volume counts, most retail trades (typically 80% to 90%+) are orders to buy GameStop, not sell it. So, if retail has indeed bought the float and retail is holding and not selling, who is on the sell side of the trade? Groups like investment and pension funds certainly provide some liquidity when they chose to sell off shares, but their general investment strategy is to buy and hold equities they believe will increase in value. Any liquidity they provide is intermittent and sporadic.
For thinly traded, illiquid stocks such as GameStop, it is often market makers themselves who end up on the sell side of the trade for buy orders that come from retail. Market makers are required to maintain working pools of bona fide shares from which to draw, but these lack the scale necessary to satisfy all demand when buying pressure is significant. To fulfill buy orders in times of high demand, market makers rely on synthetic shares they create “out of thin air.” This something from nothing approach to market making allows for continual market activity (e.g., buying) even when selling parties are not to be found. A market maker has the right to and is even required to create and sell you shares when no external seller is lined up.
Here is how Ken Griffin described Citadel Securities’ role when speaking about the sudden upsurge in retail buying that occurred in late January 2021.
“During the period of frenzied retailed equities trading, Citadel Securities was able to provide continuous liquidity every minute of every trading day. When others were unable or unwilling to handle the heavy volumes, Citadel Securities was there. On Wednesday, January 27th, we executed 7.4 billion shares on behalf of retail investors. To put this into perspective, on that day Citadel Securities executed more shares for retail investors than the entire average daily volume of the entire US equities market in 2019. The magnitude of the orders routed to Citadel Securities reflects the confidence of the retail brokerage community in our firm’s ability to deliver in all market conditions.”Once a synthetic share is created and sold off, market makers have a finite window of time in which to use your money to locate and obtain (i.e., trade for) a real share and deliver it to you to replace the synthetic one you were given at the time of purchase. The current dynamics around GameStop make delivery of bona fide shares a virtually impossible task. Constant buying coupled with infinite holding mean there are no bona fide shares to pass through to retail. Yet market makers are required to have a stack of shares (usually 100) available for purchase at all times. Whenever they can find a group (e.g., a hedge fund) brazen even enough to take on new short positions in GameStop, those positions are offloaded. When not, the market maker is compelled to directly hold the short positions.
Moreover, the buy and hold strategy retail has adopted for GameStop significantly reduces the terrain that can be canvassed for opportunities to close short positions. When, day in day out, an outsized portion of trade volume emanates from retail and 80+% of that volume is orders to buy, chances to purchase bona fide shares and close out (i.e., buy back) short positions become few and far between.
Figure 6 illustrates this dynamic. From the perspective of market makers, the trading market for GameStop has become extremely disarranged. 42% of trades are executed at off-exchange TRFs—83% more than typical—and 80% to 90% or more of that volume is buy orders. Reducing short positions, let alone becoming position neutral, on highly illiquid and over-shorted stock like GME is a near-impossible task when daily confronted with new buy orders to fulfill.
Figure 6 - The terrain market makers and other firms must navigate when executing trades and seeking to close out short positions on GameStop
Because retail trades on GameStop are continuously skewed toward buying—a sustained 85/15 mix looks nothing like a 50/50 mix—it is important to adjust (i.e., reduce) the daily terrain that can be canvassed by those looking to close out short positions in GameStop. This is particularly true in light retail already owning the entire float of GameStop (see due diligence done by multiple others to learn about the evidence thereof). When a new buy order from retail is now fulfilled, it is rarely if ever preceded by a successful hunt for bona fide shares. Rather, the selling party on the other side of the trade is almost always a market maker with a freshly minted synthetic. Thus, when looking at daily volume for GameStop and pockets of opportunity that emerge to close out short positions, I remove 80% of volume routed to off-exchange TRFs to account for retail’s sustained buying campaign despite the float already being owned and locked.
Calculating minimum total short interest over time
As summarized in Table 3, this analysis combines daily and weekly trade data obtained from Yahoo Finance, ChartExchange, and FINRA. While mostly complete, the data have gaps and limitations noted here. To my knowledge, this is the most complete picture possible with public data and no publicly available analysis has yet combined these sources to create daily estimates of total short interest in GameStop.
Table 3 - Data used to calculate minimum total short interest over time
Starting with a short interest estimate of 77.8M short positions on January 15th (see explanation in previous section), I combine the data described above to create subsequent daily estimates of new and running total short interest based on the measures of (A) daily terrain to close short positions, (B) daily minimum # of new short positions created and (C) daily maximum # of eliminated short positions that were also described in earlier sections. Recall that the last two measures are very conservative (i.e., favorable to those with short positions) in that they assume every opportunity to close a short position in GameStop is always taken. Here the formulas are expressed semi-mathematically in case helpful:
Table 4 - Formulas used
Findings – As of November 26, 2021, minimum total short interest in GameStop appears to be no less than ~325.9M
Figure 7 illustrates daily estimates for total, aggregate short interest based on measures of daily minimum number of new shorts positions created and the daily maximum # of eliminated short positions.
Figure 7 - Minimum number of total short positions based on daily minimum # of new short positions and daily maximum # of eliminated short positions
Though theoretically possible that short interest temporarily declined on January 15th and for several days after, it does not appear that all historical short positions could have been closed because when minimum total short interest reached its nadir on Tuesday, January 26th, at least 8.3M short positions remained open on GameStop at day’s end—notwithstanding the fact that as many as 22.3M short positions could have been closed that very same day. In brief, (a) short interest starting out at too a high of a level coupled with (b) the stock price jumping to too high of a level coupled with (c) exponential and overwhelming growth in buy orders for GameStop created a situation where “shorts never closed”—and could never close.
The following day, January 27th, the price of GameStop skyrocketed 135% to close at $348. Due to aggressive short selling (56% of all volume) that day, aggregate short interest on that same day rose by a minimum of 11.2M shares back up to 19.6M minimum total short positions. On Thursday January 28th, the same day many brokers restricted retail’s ability to buy GameStop, short sellers were only in position to close a maximum of 2.6M short positions.
In the few weeks that immediately followed, minimum total short interest hovered in the 15M to 25M range before skyrocketing again on February 24th, the same day that saw a 104% increase in Gamestop’s price per share. The rise in minimum total short interest continued through late March. Since that point, a gradual, day by day increase in minimum total short interest has been the defining pattern. As of November 26th, 2021, minimum total short interest on GameStop appears to be comprised of 325.9M open short positions, or 419% short interest of the float.
Playing with core assumptions
There are four core assumptions within this analysis:
Table 5 - Range of estimates for minimum total short interest on GameStop by November 26th, 2021 | *number reported in main analysis
In short, I like the stock. Hedgies r wReKt. Call your mom. BUY, HODL, DRS. Diamond hands to infinity.
Also: This is not financial advice. I am not a financial professional nor am I qualified to offer financial advice. This study has not been peer-reviewed let alone ape-reviewed. Known assumptions and limitations have been communicated. There are likely others. Inform yourself and make your own financial decisions.
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2021.12.03 20:04 x-think Random in reach.
2021.12.03 20:04 AndrewHeard A 3-year-old went for a flu shot. Instead, she mistakenly got an adult COVID-19 vaccine
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2021.12.03 20:04 SuperBubsy I think i’ve been cheated in every relationship i have been in… why?
I’ve always been kind, caring, understanding, trying to better both of us in all ways and even give My partner the benefit of the doubt when facts tell me otherwise.
I wanted to know if others experienced this before and for those that came out of it… what did you do?
My upbringing was filled with narcissistic parents, and a possible psychopathic or sociopathic sibling. I was the scapegoat, i was the person patching everything together so we could stay afloat.
Doing my best to recover from the trauma, but can’t get into a loving healthy relationship for the life of me. Advice or help :)?
Wishing you all the best.
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2021.12.03 20:04 Accomplished-Crab355 Crack rock of gains
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2021.12.03 20:04 newsdk Strømmen er tilbage i Grønland efter at kabel er repareret
2021.12.03 20:04 NewsElfForEnterprise Facebook Messenger is getting a built-in bill splitting feature
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2021.12.03 20:04 Pinducas011 The Dusks have become my favorite playback device out of all the headphones, IEMs, and speakers i’ve bought, without a doubt. The amount of detail, clarity, and accuracy in these is unreal. An easy 10/10.
2021.12.03 20:04 crimpysuasages Beer Store Dance Vibes: One 52 Year Old's Journey Towards the Beer Store
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