Finishing SB soon, anything I should know about ShB?
2021.11.29 06:26 azeriath Finishing SB soon, anything I should know about ShB?
As the title says.
People have told me such amazing things about ShB and I am really excited to get into it. Just have the quest Stormblood left and then the patch quests.
I have not even watched the trailer for ShB let alone Endwalker.
How many hours (ish) of content is ShB if you read every MSQ and so forth? Dungeon queue times not included.
And do you have any tips for someone walking in to that expansion wish fresh eyes? Talking it slow is a given ofc.
submitted by azeriath to ffxiv [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Mockaz Málaga Christmas lights 2021 - Málaga historic centre virtual walking tour by night
2021.11.29 06:26 RaBsAh What is the best website to buy a jacket? وش افضل موقع عشان تشتري جاكيت؟
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته. I want to buy a warm jacket, like arctic or south pole jackets. I want it to be very warm and at an average price jacket. For example 350~SR, but I don't know of a website that sells with the same order. ابي اشتري جاكيت يدفي، نفس نظام جاكيتات الي يروحون القطب الجنوبي او حتى الشمالي. يعني ابيه يكون دافي بزيادة وابيه بسعر متوسط تقريبا 350ريال~، الي يعرف موقع فيه نفس المتطلبات لا يقصر خاصة اننا دخلنا الشتاء ف اتوقع الموضوع ب يكون مفيد لناس مثلي.
submitted by RaBsAh to saudiarabia [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Due-Setting9914 Atronach forge glitch
Whenever I use the atronach forge to make daedric boots it’s shows then being made but when I go to pick them up it’s like they disappear, they’re not even in my inventory.
Can anybody help?
submitted by Due-Setting9914 to SkyrimTogether [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 TheTheStutterer What's the benefit of seeing a therapist vs just using a workbook?
Every therapist I've been to has basically stuck, in a very rote way, to a system as described in a workbook. I don't give a shit about the human connection part, I think that's overblown and really expensive and time consuming. Can I just use a workbook and be done with it?
submitted by TheTheStutterer to NoStupidQuestions [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Mrmayo2008 I need an answer dr2 off the record
In dead rising 2 off the record I know they changed Stacy to be the villain but why did they change her Model? And why did they keep Sullivan the same?
submitted by Mrmayo2008 to deadrising [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Powerful_Walker4 So, no more Battlefront then?
submitted by Powerful_Walker4 to ZanClan [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Psychological_Low862 $5K Wedding Gift
Long story short, my partner (together 1.5 yrs) is VERY close with his sister as, growing up, they only had each other to rely on. Unfortunately he also seems to idolize her because of it and when he speaks of her it's like she's flawless. I'm super intimidated by her even though I haven't actually met her yet (lives overseas).
She's now planning her wedding and my partner has said that he would like to give her $5000 as a wedding gift. Which would've been fine if we weren't dating but now I can't stop thinking about future finances together...will he throw money at her whenever? Will we suffer because of how much he's willing to always be there for his sister?
Am I wrong to not be okay with this?
submitted by Psychological_Low862 to amiwrong [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Signal-Salt On a video with a cat
2021.11.29 06:26 Konmaru-Doma christmas decor outside of a mall - A7C Sigma 20mm and 85mm
submitted by Konmaru-Doma to SonyAlpha [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 TheSigmaKing Is this Art Deco?
2021.11.29 06:26 MechanicalAnimal87 Discovered my recent obsession with the SR-71 started three decades ago
D.A.R.Y.L, a 1985 sci-fi film, started this all. (Shortly followed by X-Men TAS now that I think about it.) Anyway, came across this clip and the nostalgia hit hard. It's bizarre how much I still want to be that kid. Just hop in the cock pit of a SR-71 and take it for a joy ride around the block? Could you imagine it?
Is there any place in the US where you can actually sit inside the cockpit of a Blackbird? I'm not talking simulations either. I want all 60,000 lbs of it.
submitted by MechanicalAnimal87 to SR71 [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 highestlama People queuing on r/askUK
2021.11.29 06:26 Khanage4567 Zagreb, Croatia
2021.11.29 06:26 PeasantOfCydonia Game should reward critical hit streaks
I think that game should reward critical hit streaks with extra exp bonus.
submitted by PeasantOfCydonia to WitcherMonsterSlayer [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Winstonoceaniasmith EU nations add air, space and drone tech to their defense cooperation roster
2021.11.29 06:26 thunkimjusthappy I’m afraid I’m stuck in a digital simulation
I really need help
submitted by thunkimjusthappy to MomForAMinute [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 TribeofYHWH Argument for the Christian God From Prophecy
I'm really sorry for frequently deleting my posts. This has to do with personal insecurities from my Autism (with BPD tendencies) when my post is down-voted. I know that sounds lame, but it's the truth. It brings out fears of rejections and abandonment. Also, I'm a perfectionist. This is my last post. I'm wondering what sophisticated atheists have to say against this case, truthfully.
Thesis: Jesus' life (and the impact of his followers) is predicted in the Messianic oracles within the book of Isaiah, which dates over 550 years before Jesus' life. Thus, the prophecies are good evidence for the Christian God. I will list the prophecies here from most to least weighty.
The Messiah in Isaiah will:
- Be pierced, killed, and buried for the sins of the world (Isa. 53:5-12). The “many nations” of 52:13-15 is included in "the many” of 53:11-12 where the Servant makes them righteous and will bear and פָגַע (“intervene/intercede”) for their sins. James P. Ware writes that: "through literary recurrence the Song thus links both the illumination of the “many nations” in 52:13-15, and the first-person confession of Israel in 53:1-9, with the description of the Servant’s redemption of the “many” in the closing divine oracle in 53:10-12 . . . by the close of the poem, the reader comprehends that the “many” of the climactic final oracle (53:10-12) includes both Israel and the gentiles" (Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, pp. 77). Thus, the Servant truly does bear the sins of the world in Deutero-Isaiah's original context.
- Be rejected by the Jewish people and others (Isa. 53:2-4). As noted below, the speaker in Isaiah 53 has to be the Jewish people as per the original intent of the author, whether one likes it or not. Here, Israel's people who says that the Servant "had no form or majesty that we should look at him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him," and that "we held him of no account." Many Jewish people are expecting and have always expected a warrior like Messiah (though obviously not all, as ancient and modern Judaism isn't a monolith). Jesus wasn't and isn't this to them. That's why ancient Messianic interpretations of the Servant turned the Servant into a warrior Messiah (see e.g., the Parables of Enoch; Isaiah Targum). This is thus an amazing prophecy fulfilled.
- Be associated with Nazareth in Galilee - "Jesus of Nazareth." The Messiah in Isa. 11:1 is associated with "branch" imagery. The Hebrew word for "branch" or "scion" in Isa. 11:1 is neṣer. As Christophe Rico points out in The Mother of the Infant King, there is a striking connection between the word neṣer and the ancient historical town of Nazareth, where they have the same root letters - נצר.
- Be called YHWH (God) Himself (Isa. 9:6) and be YHWH (God) Himself (Isa. 7:14; 11:10; 52:13);
- Be physically abused (Isa. 50:6; 53:5);
- Have followers after him (whom he "sees" post-mortem). The "offspring" in 53:10 do not refer to literal children, according to most scholars, but rather those redeemed by the Servant. They are called the “servants" of the Servant; cf. Isa 54:17; 56:6; 65:8, 9, 13-15; 66:14. They are also called the “offspring" of the Servant; cf. Isa 59:21; 61:8-9; 65:9, 23; 66:22. A community that follows the servant can be seen as early as Isa. 50:4-11. James P. Ware writes: "the offspring of the Servant . . . not only follows him but also imitates him, in some mysterious fashion taking up his vocation of suffering, participating in his redemptive mission, and sharing in his victory (Isa 57:1–13; 59:9–21; 65:8–16; 66:1–5). The Servant’s role as a “light to the nations” (42:6; 49:6) is thus taken up and extended by the servants of the Servant (Isa 63:1–3, 19–22; 62:1–3)" (Ware, "The Servants of the Servant in Isaiah and Philippians," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2021, pp. 261). As made evident by Isaiah 56:6-8 (and elsewhere), the "servants" include gentiles (cf. Isa. 56:1-8). They are also given an "everlasting," "new," and "different" name (cf. Isa. 56:6; 62:2; 65:15);
- Be brought back to life from the dead (Isa. 53:10-11). James P. Ware writes: "that the Servant is portrayed in the fourth Song as restored from death to life is recognized by the majority of interpreters. The text is explicit that following his demise the Servant “will prolong days” (53:10) and “will see light” (53:11)." (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, 2011, pp. 75);
- Will be known for the miraculous (Isa. 9:6). The "Son" here is called "wonderful counselor" in most translations. Wonderful is descriptive of "counselor." The English word "wonderful" is watered down though. Regarding the Hebrew word for "wonderful," H.G.M. Williamson says "we need to understand it here in its fuller sense, which may certainly include, but is not narrowly limited to, the miraculous" (Isaiah 6-12 [ICC, 2018], pp. 399);
- Be a light to the gentiles and the nations (Isa. 9:1-2; 11:10, 12; 42:4, 6; 49:1, 6; 52:13; 53:11-12) so that God's "salvation may reach to the end of the earth." (Isa. 49:6). Thus, "the coastlands wait for his teaching" (Isa. 42:4; cf. 49:1);
- Initiate a new covenant (Isa. 42:6; cf. Jer. 31:31-34);
- Be recognized by the kings and princes of the nations after initially being ignored by them (Isa. 49:7; 52:15);
- Initially fail in his mission to preach to Israel (Isa. 49:4);
- Be born of a young virgin (Isa. 7:14). For recent groundbreaking evidence of the virginity of the mother of Immanuel in Isa. 7:14, see Christophe Rico here and (briefly) below;
- Be born during a time of want and adversity in the land of Israel due to destruction and invasion (Isa. 7:15-16);
- Be just, righteous, and without deceit (Isa. 7:15; 9:6-7; 11:2-5; 42:2-4; 53:9, 11);
Etcetera. Everything below this will be to support the contentions above (aside from those which can be easily verified by a quick google search).
The Existence of Isaiah son of Amoz
There are many good argument to think that there was a historical Isaiah of Jerusalem. One can ascertain this just from the writings from book of Isaiah itself. See for example Jaap Dekker (Leiden: Brill, 2009
) to see how this can be done. But aside from the Bible itself, the strongest and most direct evidence for Isaiah the prophet comes from archaeology
, and it is the (likely) seal of Isaiah himself, something that was found just ten feet away from the bulla of King Hezekiah.
Manuscripts of 'Isaiah'
The famous Isaiah scroll (1QIsaa
), which encompasses the entirety of the book of Isaiah (minus a few damaged portions) has been dated hundreds of years before Jesus ever lived by both paleography and science (radiocarbon dating). See also 1QIsab
and other manuscripts as well that date before 70 CE (e.g., 4QIsad
Typological Fulfillment Vs. Direct Prophecy In the Eyes of the NT Authors
For the Gospel authors, there was a difference between "typological fulfillment" (events or people that the they think serve as a model/pattern for what will happen in a greater event or person at a later time), and a fulfillment of a direct prophecy. The authors in the NT never clarify whether they think a given text is a 'direct prediction' or a 'typological prediction.' While this does make things less straightforward, the author applying texts like Hosea 11:1 (and others) out of their original context was not deceptive (it was common in ancient Jewish interpretation too), and it doesn't preclude genuine prophetic fulfillment.
The Credibility of the NT
The only good counter to these prophecies IMO is that the authors of the NT were far removed from eyewitnesses and invented events to make Jesus' life fit these prophecies. But there simply is just too much independent and eyewitness literary evidence for the life and actions of Jesus to ignore. It is generally agreed that there are five main accounts of Jesus that are completely independent from each other literary speaking (that is, the author of X document didn't have knowledge that Y document existed). These documents are:
- Paul's letters (48-65 C.E.)
- Quelle (30-70 C.E.). Most scholars think this document existed, in spite of it's lack of manuscript evidence (as is the case with lots of ancient works).
- The Gospel of Mark (60-75 C.E.).
- The first edition to the Gospel of John (55-70 C.E.). Space precludes a discussion of this early date for the first draft of John, but more scholars are viewing this as likely (e.g., James H. Charlesworth, Urban C. Von Wahlde).
- Josephus' Ant. 18.3.3. Most scholars think that Josephus has a core report about Jesus of Nazareth in this passage (see the assertion for "most scholars" in Paula Fredriksen, When Christians Were Jews: The First Generation, Yale Univiersity Press, 2018, pp. 80).
One should be aware that most scholars think that, while the Gospels were not first hand directly, used eyewitnesses directly as sources. Colleen Conway for example writes:
Today most scholars think that Johannine traditions stem from an unidentified follower of Jesus, not one of the twelve disciples. This anonymous disciple developed a group of followers, the "Johannine school," who were responsible for writing down his witness.
(Colleen Conway, "John," in The New Oxford Annotated Bible
, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 2777)
The pre-Pauline confession of 1 Cor. 15:3-7 also says that Jesus died "for our sins according to the scriptures
." The pre-Pauline apostolic confession, which was at least inspired and OKAY'D by eyewitnesses, such as Peter (see here
for more on that), coheres with the Gospel testimony, which affirms that Jesus died "according to the scriptures" through constant scriptural citations. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Immanuel Oracle (Isaiah 7)
When Assyria continued to march westward in the year 734 B.C.E., Ephraim and Syria wanted Judah to form an alliance with them to defend against the Assyrian swarm. When Judah refused, Ephraim and Syria (known as "Aram") teamed up against Judah so they could lay a siege against it and install a puppet King, "the son of Tabeel." While Ahaz and his people fear (Isa. 7:2), Isaiah and his son is sent to Ahaz to encourage him to have complete trust in YHWH (v. 3-6), with v. 6-9 announcing the failure of Judah's enemies. Isaiah 7:10-13
In v. 10-11 Isaiah is clearly speaking to Ahaz, as the imperative verbs are all second person masculine singular in form, as well as two pronouns. V. 13 than switches to the second person plural, indicating that the sign is for the ENTIRE Davidic house, not just for Ahaz in particular (v. 13 thus alludes to v. 9b, which also uses the plural). This switch from the referent being Ahaz in v. 12 to the entire dynasty of the House of David in v. 13 after Ahaz refused the sign
(cf. v. 12) is key. Peter J. Gentry explains verse 13:
The two verbs, “hear” (וּעמשׁ) and “you must weary” (וּאלתּ) are second person plural in form. The one pronoun employed with the infinitive “to weary” is also second person plural. Yahweh/Isaiah is no longer addressing Ahaz directly or specifically; he is addressing the entire dynasty of David: past, present, and future—the whole House of David. The pronoun in verse 14 is also second masculine plural in form. The sign in verse 11 was offered specifically to Ahaz. Ahaz declined. In spite of Ahaz’s response, Yahweh gave a sign. The sign he gave was for the entire family line of David and is therefore not at all tied to the time of Ahaz.
(Peter J. Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16—A Direct Prediction of a Distant Future Relative to Isaiah’s Time?," in The Mother of the Infant King
[Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020], pp. 188).
So Isa. 7's sign spans the entire history of the remaining Davidic family tree, something that will be clarified in Isa. 11:1. Verses 15-16a continue to speak in the third person masculine singular about the promised boy. Then, suddenly, v. 16b switches to second masculine singular in form, once again addressing specifically Ahaz and his days again, including what follows (v. 17-25).
Isaiah 7:14: The Virginity of Immanuel's Mother Christophe Rico
in a recent monograph argues that ‘almāh
means "young virgin," distinct from betûlāh
, which refers to a virgin of any age. This overcomes, by far, the most weighty and frequent objection made to the meaning of ‘almāh
denoting virginity, which is: what would distinguish ‘almāh
meant "virgin"? The key is that ‘almāh
virgin." Many different languages from all different types of family languages have a distinction between ‘girl,' ‘virgin’ and ‘young virgin' (e.g., Arabic [fatâ’ah
]; Catalan [noia
]; Russian [devuška
]), so it isn't hard to believe that the same set of distinctions existed in ancient Hebrew before ‘almāh
eventually became a technical musical term later on (as Rico argues). For the full case for "young virgin," see Rico's full book. Rico claims to make arguments regarding ‘almāh
purely as a linguist.
A key point though is that the birth of Immanuel is a "sign" (’ôt
). While it is true that ’ôt
doesn't necessarily denote anything miraculous, the context and use of ’ôt
- The verb ’nissâ ("to test") occurs in the context of Isa. 7:14 (cf. v. 12). As Rico points out, when used in the context of a sign request, the verb nissâ occurs in only one other place in the Bible. That occurrence is found in the Midian episode with Gideon (see the use in Judg. 6:39), where the sign is miraculous. The use of the verb nissâ in the context of Isa. 7:14 thus suggests that the sign is meant to be miraculous as well. There are striking parallels to this story in Judges with the oracles of Isaiah 7-11, which strengthen this link with Isa. 7 and the Gideon episodes. See my this post for the parallels.
- Mark D. Schutzius (II) argues in The Hebrew Word for 'sign' and Its Impact on Isaiah 7:14 (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015) that every miraculous use of the word ’ôt has YHWH specifically provide the sign. Instructive is Isa. 38:7 ("This is the sign to you from the LORD . . ."), where the sign is miraculous. Contrary to verses like this, uses of the word ’ôt that aren't miraculous do not come directly from YHWH. Rather, they describe God designating ordinary people, things, or events as "signs" (e.g., Gen. 1:14; 9:11-17; 17:11; Exod. 3:11-12; 12:7-13; Num. 2:2; 16:38; Ezek. 14:8). If ’ôt in 7:14 did not denote a miracle, it would be far out of step with the typical usage of ’ôt where YHWH says he provided it.
"Immanuel" in Isaiah 7:14
"Immanuel" isn't the actual historical name that the Son will be given (just like actual historical name of the "Son" of Isaiah 9 that is to be born isn't 'Peleʾ yōʿēṣ ʾēl gībbōr ʾáḇī-ʿaḏ śar-šālōm
,' "Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace"). Saying this is a failed prophecy because Jesus wasn't named 'Immanuel' is to miss the point of the name in Isaiah's original context.
Peter J. Gentry summarizes the child “eating curds and honey" (Isa. 7:15):
The fact that the child will eat curds and honey means that the land will be dominated by pastoralists and not farmers. This is an indication of the devastation and destruction resulting in exile and the conquest by the Assyrians and Babylonians.
(Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16," pp. 215)
The negative use of this same terminology in used 7:21-22 suggests that this analysis of the curds and honey is correct. The Immanuel boy within Isa. 7 is to be born beyond
the immediate future during the aftermath of destruction
, for Isa. 7:15's curds and honey "signifies the aftermath of catastrophe and the disruption of a thriving agricultural society" (Etan Levine, “The Land of Milk and Honey,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2000
, pp. 57). So construed, Immanuel eating curds and honey means that he will be born during a time of want and adversity in Israel. This fits Jesus' time and place.
Many point to Isa. 7:16 for the imminence of the Immanuel boy. But this v. is hard to render. It is thus immature to speak about the imminence of the birth of Immanuel from this alone. Peter J. Gentry correctly argues
The pronoun on the suffixed noun, “her kings” must refer to “land” since the pronoun is feminine singular . . . The two kings cannot be the King of Israel and the King of Aram . . . because one could not say of them, that “the land had two kings."
Gentry interprets the two kings as that of Northern Israel and
Judah, which would expand the horizon of the oracle. One doesn't have to agree with Gentry's translation of v. 16 to recognize that the NRSV contradicts Hebrew grammar though.
H.G.M. Williamson has "before whose two kings you are in dread
but thinks that it is an interpolation. One of Williamson's arguments for this relates to Gentry's point:
It is incongruous to have one land mentioned with two kings . . . (ibid., 168).
Thus, in ibid.
, 167 Williamson translates the earliest text behind the current oracle in v. 16 as:
For before the lad knows to reject the bad and choose the good, the land will be abandoned.
This also may imply that Judah will be deserted (with no decisive temporal indictor).
Christophe Rico, in his book The Mother of the Infant King
(Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020), pp. 144-147 argues that the v. should be translated as:
Before [Immanuel] knows to reject evil and to choose good the land which disgusts you because of its two kings will be abandoned.
Rico's translation is most supported by the versions and I agree with it. "The text implies that the country would be emptied of its inhabitants" (ibid.
, 147). This broadens the horizon of this prophecy, for "the abandonment of the land can refer either to the campaign of Tiglath-Pileser in 732 or to the successive deportations which occurred in Samaria (722-21) and in Judah (597 and 586)" (ibid.
, 147). So Rico interprets this v. as speaking about one country 'the land (Judah) whose two kings you hate, that land will be abandoned.' \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The 'El-Gibbôr Oracle (Isaiah 9) Isaiah 9:1-2
The word כִּ֣י in 9:1 continues the thought of Isa. 8:19-22. "Galilee of the Nations"
is a phrase that is unique in the Hebrew Bible. No one else who mentions Galilee in the Hebrew Bible "found it necessary to call attention to Gentiles" (J. Motyer Alec, The Prophecy of Isaiah
, kindle loc. 3002). But the authors of the Hebrew Bible conceived of a Messiah for the entire world, not just Israel (see below//Isa. 11:4, 10)! "The people"
include gentiles and is alluded to in Isaiah 11:10 ("the peoples"), which no doubt refers to gentiles. Isaiah 9:2 also picks up on an important theme from Isaiah 2:2-5 by picking up the imagery of light: "let us walk in the light of the Lord" (Isa. 2:5). The numerous literary echoes picked up from Isa. 2:2-4 makes Isa. 2:5 function as an "exhortation to the house of Jacob to imitate the nations in their conversion from idols to the true God. This has the literary effect of associating the imagery of light in 2:5 with the revelation of God to the nations in 2:2-4" (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church
, pp. 57). Since Isaiah 2 envisioned gentiles walking in the light of the LORD, so too does Isa. 9.
As Isaiah 9 picks up on themes from Isaiah 2, Isaiah 11:9-10 does the same thing with both Isaiah 9 and 2. All "these intertextual connections link the dawning of the light upon the mixed gentile populace of northern Israel (“Galilee of the nations”) in Isaiah 9 . . . with the conversion of the gentiles envisioned in 11:9-10" (ibid.
Many interpret these verses as referring to an end to war (or a victory from a battle with the Assyrians) and a return of the exiles from northern Israel in connection with the advent of the Davidide. But neither options are being communicated literally. Christopher Seitz writes: "the cause for joy is not so much pending military victory but the “birth” of a new ruler" (Seitz, Isaiah 1-3
9, pp. 147). Supporting this interpretation is the "for" construction (starting in Isa. 9:3) leading up to the birth of the "Son." So the joy experienced from "the people" due to the coming of the "Son" is like
or is compared
to the joy over a return from exile or the conquering of Israel's enemies.
Many dispute seeing Jesus in this passage because of the detail of the "Son" having the "authority" on his shoulders. I guess the question for one would have to be: what 'authority' do the authors of the New Testament have for you? The writers of the NT affirm that the ascension of Jesus to the right hand of God's throne is the assumption of the government/authority upon his shoulders. In fact, Psalm 110 is the most quoted Psalm in the NT. I will now go into the titles given to the "Son." Here, an unspecified group of people call the "Son" God. "Wonderful Counselor"
The root פלא , "wonder" (whether in the form of a noun or verb) strictly relates to the realm of divine action in Isaiah (Isa. 25:1; 28:29; 29:14). Interesting also is Psalm 72:18, which says: “Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who alone
works wonders.” H.G.M. Williamson adds:
The root יָעָ֖ץ, whether as verb or noun, is also used in relation to God at 14.24, 27; 19.12, 17; 23.9
(Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
, pp. 399)
The same exact words, 'ēl gibbôr,
is applied for YHWH Himself in 10:20-21 - the very next chapter that follows Isaiah 9. Outside of the verse in question, 'ēl gibbôr
is a "divine designation which is never used elsewhere for a human being" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
[ICC, 2018], pp. 399). See Deut. 10:17; Isa. 10:21; Jer. 32:18 for example.
The use of "Father" for the Israelite king is unattested (the king was rather usually designated as YHWH's son). See also the use of "Father" for YHWH in Isa. 63:16 and 64:7. Interesting is Isaiah 1:2-3, where "the fatherhood of God underlies the opening metaphor of the book" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
, pp. 400). The notion of eternity further supports the divinity of the "Son." \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Stump of Jesse Oracle (Isaiah 11)
Space precludes in-depth analysis of this oracle. Here you have an outstanding and deep Christian-like understanding of how the Spirit is resting upon Messiah (Isa. 11:2), as it does with Jesus in the NT. The text also clearly speaks of a person who obeys YHWH in righteousness who will be sought after by the gentiles/nations (Isa. 11:10, 12) in a new spiritual exodus (Isa. 11:11-16), and this surely fits Jesus. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Servant of the LORD
While the Servant is identified as Jacob-Israel as a collective outside of the Songs (Isaiah 41:8, 9; 43:10; 44:1, 2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), the nation of Israel is revealed within the dynamic movement of the Servant Songs
as being embodied and reduced down to one suffering Messianic individual figure. In other words, the Servant never departs from being Israel, but "Israel" undergoes an extreme reduction within the Songs, and it seems to me that it's reduced to one person - "a faithful embodiment of the nation Israel who has not performed its chosen role (48:1–2)" (Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah
, pp. 541 [kindle version]). To see how Isaiah 49:3 is not in contradiction with an individual interpretation of the Servant, see Jaap Dekker's 2012 article here
(pp. 38-39). Joseph Blenkinsopp also writes:
Ever since Christopher R. North surveyed the range of opinion on the identity of the Servant in 1948 (2d ed., 1956), no significant new options have emerged. While there was then and still is a strong critical preference for an individual rather than a collective interpretation, none of the fifteen individuals named as candidates by one commentator or another and listed by North has survived scrutiny (Blenkinsopp, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 355).
There are many reasons to think that the nation of Israel has been reduced down to one person within the Servant Songs themselves, one of them being Isaiah 49:5-6, where the Servant has a mission to
- The Speaker: An "objection to an identification of the Servant in the songs with corporate Israel is the observation that throughout Isaiah whenever the pronouns ‘we,’ ‘our,’ or ‘us’ are introduced abruptly, as in 53:1ff. (that is, without an explicit identification of the speakers, as in 2:3; 3:6; 4:1; etc.), it is always the prophet speaking on behalf of the people of Israel with whom he identifies (1:9f.; 16:6; 24:26; 33:2, 20; 42:24; 59:9-12; 63:15-19; 64:3-11; etc.)" (G.P. Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure,” pp. 6-7). While there are verbal and conceptual links between 52:15 and 53:1, causing some scholars to think that the nations and kings of Isaiah 52:15 speak here, there is an important point of contrast, as J.L. Koole writes: “Those referred to in [52:15] have not ‘heard’, while the speakers of 53:1 have” (J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 275). Lastly, Brevard S. Childs observes that: "the confessing ‘we’ of the Old Testament is always Israel and not the nations (Hos. 6:1ff.; Jer. 3:21ff.; Dan. 9:4ff.)" (Childs, Isaiah, pp. 581). This last point by Childs is decisive. The “we” refers to the prophet on behalf of Israel elsewhere in Isaiah (e.g., Isa. 16:6; 24:16; 42:24; 64:4–5)
- "My people": My people" (or "his people") in Isaiah 53:8 refer to Jewish people, since "my people" (minus one instance regarding Egypt in Isaiah 19:25) is always applied to the Jewish people in the book of Isaiah, and always is in Second Isaiah (e.g., 1:3; 3:12, 15; 5:13; 10:2, 24; 14:25; 21:10; 22:4; 26:20; 32:13, 18; 40:1; 43:20; 47:6; 51:4; 52:4, 5, 6). Likewise, "his people" always refers to Israel or it's people in the context of the entire book of Isaiah (e.g., 3:14 5:25; 7:2; 11:11, 16; 14:32; 25:8; 28:5; 30:26; 49:13; 51:22; 52:9). In 53:8, "he" (the Servant") is thus distinguished from "my people" or "his people" - Israel.
- The Righteous Servant: The description of the Servant as being untainted with violence or being without deceit is impossible to reconcile with the OT's or even Second Isaiah's description of Israel as a nation or a people. As noted by G.P. Hugenberger, “Deutero-Isaiah repeatedly stresses that contemporary Israel is a sinful people who suffer on account of their own transgressions (42:18-25; 43:22-28; 47:7; 48:18f.; 50:1; 54:7; 57:17; 59:2ff.)" (Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah,” pp. 4).
If one can show that the Servant is an individual, than Messianic interpretations are easy to make given the intertextuality shared between the Servant in Second Isaiah and the Messiah in First Isaiah (and other Messianic texts in the Hebrew Bible), even with Isaiah 55:3-5 considered. Fine scholars have made and still make strong arguments for some sort of messianic interpretation of the Servant Songs within Isaiah.
The Deity of the Servant
Wilcox and Paton Williams observe: "throughout Isaiah 1–66, the adjectives “exalted”, “lifted up” and “very high” are virtually technical terms, applied almost exclusively to Yahweh" (Peter Wilcox and David Paton-Williams, ‘The Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah’, JSOT
], pp. 95). Isaiah 52:13 and 57:15 also can be shown to be dependent on Isaiah 6:1, which depicts YHWH. Thus, the Servant shares the glory of YHWH which however only belonged to God in Second Isaiah (Isaiah 42:8; 48:11). ‘I will give my glory to no other." Yet in Isaiah 52:13, Mark Gignilliat writes that: "the Servant is narratively depicted as one who is sharing in what belongs to YHWH alone, that is, his glory" (Mark Gignilliat "Who is Isaiah's Servant? Narrative identity and theological potentiality," Scottish Journal of Theology
, pp. 132). See Jaap Dekker, “The High and Lofty One Dwelling in the Heights and with his Servants,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
for more arguments here.
The Servant of God's Law and Covenant: Isaiah 42:4, 6 and 49:1, 8
These texts reveal that the Servant will give teachings to the world (Isa. 42:4; 49:1) and be a covenant for the people. Actually, Isaiah 42:4 is better rendered as "law," since the Hebrew word used (tôrātô) means "his Torah." Thus, the Servant brings a new
law, discontinuities with the Mosaic law. In Isaiah 42:6, it is also revealed that the Servant will be "given . . . as a covenant to the people." This parallels Jeremiah 31:31-34, where there is a new law and a new covenant, a covenant with a clear discontuity with the old Law of Moses in such a way as to render the law of Moses as merely a foreshowing of this new work of YHWH to come
. Jeremiah 31:32 says:
"It [the new covenant] will not be like the covenant that I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt . . ."
"Not be like" is an absolute negation. Thus, "the phrase . . . does not suggest a renewal of the Mosaic covenant here" (Fẹmi Adeyẹmi, The New Covenant Torah in Jeremiah and the Law of Christ in Paul
, Peter Lang, 2006, pp. 51). Notice also a forgiveness of sins at the end of the oracle in Jeremiah 31:34, which comes just by merely "know[ing] the LORD"! Keep in mind that Jer. 31 is placed in-between three different Messianic oracles (Jer. 23:5-8; 30:7-10; 33:14-22) and is related to them, confirming the role of the Messiah in this new covenant and new law. This is well into Christian territory.
Reading the Servant Songs Too Rigidly
Many point to Isaiah 42:2 as contradicting Jesus. But a literal rendering of the Hebrew would make the verse say this:
He will not cry out nor lift, and he will not cause his voice to be heard out of the door.
The sense of the text is merely that he will not seek attention for himself during his ministry. It would make no sense to take the English translations in a sense of the Servant not teachings in the streets and towns, because the Servant is a teacher who has teachings that the coastlands wait for (Isa. 42:4). One has to bear in mind that the Servant Songs are poems
Another good example of a text that is typically read too rigidly would be:
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth . . . (Isa. 53:7).
The prophet here is just describing the Servant taking on a vocation similar to that of the Psalter. "To open the mouth" to speak is a common phrase, and the expression occurs most commonly in the Psalms where it is used for those who accept their sufferings as deserved and see a purpose in it (Ps. 38:4f., 19; 39:12). Thus, they don't curse or taunt those who persecute them. Servant is put on par with these figures in the Psalms. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) Appendix: Is The "Son" in Isaiah 7 and 9 Hezekiah?
Many think that the child of Isaiah 7 and 9 is Ahaz's son, Hezekiah. However, the equation of Hezekiah with the "Son" in Isa. 7 and 9 is specious:
- Hezekiah is not mentioned anywhere in the immediate literary context.
- Hezekiah was already born according to the historical context. J.J. Collins writes: "According to 2 Kgs 18.10, the fall of Samaria (722/721 BCE) was in the sixth year of Hezekiah, but according to v. 13 in the same chapter, the campaign of Sennacherib in 701 BCE was in his 14th year . . . Accordingly, his date of accession is variously given as 728/27 or 715 BCE. In 2 Kgs 18.1 we are told that he was 25 years old when he came to the throne, and if this is correct he would have been born too early on either date of accession" (J.J. Collins, "The Sign of Immanuel," in Prophecy and Prophets in Ancient Israel, 2010, pp. 232). See also Antti Laato, "Isaiah in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Jewish Traditions," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah, 2020, pp. 511: "Hezekiah cannot be identified with Immanuel."
- It would be awkward if Isaiah saw Hezekiah as Immanuel or the "Son" of Isaiah 9. As Antti Laato points out, "Hezekiah rebelled against Assyria. This political decision was, according to Isaiah, nothing but filth in the eyes of the Lord (Isa 30,1-5; 31,1-3)" - Antti Laato, "History and ideology in the old testament prophetic books," Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, 1994, pp. 294. Isa. 22:1-14; 32:9-14 also show that Isaiah son of Amoz was very critical with Judah's foreign policy under Hezekiah (see Antti Laato, "Understanding Zion Theology in the Book of Isaiah," in Studies in Isaiah, History, Theology, and Reception, Bloomsbury, 2017, pp. 31, 42-43).
- Details within Isaiah 7-11 reveal the boy to be the future Messiah, not Hezekiah. Isaiah 9 itself says that "there will be no end" to the reign of this Son "from this time forth and forevermore." How does this apply to Hezekiah or any of the pre-exilic kings in Judah? The "Son" of Isaiah 7 is the same "Son" in Isaiah 9, since both passages speak about a Davidic "בֵּ֚ן" ("Son") given lofty titles/names to be born as a sign of hope for the Davidic dynasty. By Isaiah expanding his prophecy in Isa. 7:14 to include the oracles of 9:1-7 and 11, Isaiah has left nothing ambiguous regarding the Messianic identity of Immanuel. The cumulative evidence also links the three sections revolving around Isa. 7; 9 and 11 as portraying a coming King using quite variegated imagery and symbolism. One of these connections is the son Isaiah has, named Shear Jashub (which literally means 'a remnant will return') - Isa. 7:3. But the thought of a remnant returning is communicated by Isa. 10:20-21 (which says that 'a remnant will return'). Isa. 10:20-21 lands in a section (Isaiah 10:5-34) which Christophe Rico and Jacob Stromberg (in his essay "Hezekiah and the Oracles against the Nations in Isaiah") have shown revolve around the Messianic stump of Jesse oracle in Isaiah 11, and thus inaugurates it. This link with Isaiah's son in Isa. 7:3, Shear Jashub (“A-Remnant-Shall-Return”), and the words “a remnant shall return” in Isa. 10:20-21, is thus developed in the Messianic oracle of Isaiah 11. Both Isa. 11:11 and Isa. 11:16 have two uses of the word שׁאר, and this word is present in 7:3 and 10:21. The Hebrew word מסלה, "highway," is also seen in Isa. 11:16, as in 7:3.
- There is no evidence of Isaiah viewing Hezekiah as deity, as the "Son" is (see above).
(6) The author of Isaiah 36-39 thought Hezekiah was not the fulfillment of the oracles in Isaiah 7-11. Jacob Stromberg writes for example:
Hezekiah, having been told that “days” (ימים) are coming when his kingdom will be dismantled by the Babylonians, responds by noting that “there will be peace [שלום] and security in my days" (39:8 → 38:3) . . . This, the last line of the story, seems carefully calculated to tell the reader that, although Hezekiah had earlier looked like the fulfillment of the days anticipated by 9:1–7, in the end, he was not: the scope of peace (שלום) in those days would be “without end” (9:7).
(Stromberg, "The Book of Isaiah: Its Final Structure," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah
, 2020, pp. 25-26).
Isaiah 39 overall has a very negative view of Hezekiah as well (e.g., Hezekiah trusts in his gold rather than YHWH). It is thus most important to note that Isaiah 38 and 39 are not in chronological order. Given this, it is striking that in Isaiah 38, Hezekiah at last puts his trust in YHWH alone, unlike Ahaz. But in Isaiah 39, we are presented with 'bad Hezekiah" who trusts in his wealth. As Sehoon Jang points out, by purposely switching the chronology of the story by ending with a negative portrayal of Hezekiah, the author of Isaiah 36-39 is implying that Hezekiah was not the coming king prophesied in the royal oracles of Isaiah 6-12.
This is because, as noted above, the author of Isaiah 36-39 at first leads on the reader to think that Hezekiah was the fulfillment of the royal oracles. For more, see:
- Sehoon Jang, "Is Hezekiah a Success or a Failure?," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2017, pp. 132-133.
While Hezekiah was thought of as a better king, he wasn't good enough (and not as good as Josiah; cf. 2 Kgs 23:25).
submitted by TribeofYHWH
to DebateReligion [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 AngentGustavo Who would win in a fight?
submitted by AngentGustavo to transformers [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 SurajNarang28 $CAKE Recovering Strongly 🚀
$CAKE is above $14 now as the market is recovering a little after recent price corrections.. Hold on tight, the next few weeks are going to be interesting for BSC and ofcourse for our 'yummy yummy' $CAKE 🥞🙌🏼💎
submitted by SurajNarang28 to pancakeswap [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 minagul Metamine
NFT + GameFi = MetaMine! Everyone should learn it if they don't want to miss the Metaverse trend. MINE tokens are also supported to open mining profits. Super tokens!We are always interested in the true value of a token, with MINE: we can rest assured that its value is guaranteed by crypto mining profits.
MetaMine #MINE #BinanceSmartChain #crypto #dao #daogovernance #metaverse submitted by minagul to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 dave_skate_nutrition Good Charlotte's Cardiology album - what went wrong and why do they not perform it any more? i think its because its too 'pop' and wasn't so well received by fans and critics
submitted by dave_skate_nutrition to GoodCharlotte [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 Shoddy_Department387 Missed #SHIBA? | Don't miss $ShibArmy 🐕 - Successfully Launched 1 hour ago |SHIB Rewards 🔥 |🟢PUMP Incoming ! Perfect time enter !
WELCOME TO $SHIBARMY
Did you miss out on $SHIB? Here is your Chance! #SHIBARMY is a trendy project on #BSC that pays you 8% out of each trade distributed in $SHIB tokens! Successfully Launched 1 hour ago!
We think everyone deserve some free cryptos in these times, $SHIBARMY has got you covered! HODL $SHIBARMY for more profit, and earn free $SHIB (Shiba Inu) while you HODL!
Come take a look at $Shibarmy its flying to the moon soon , If you are looking for moonshots you better give $SHIBARMY a shot , The token is on discount now this is the best time to get in .
🌟 Fasttrack CG & CMC + Dextools trending when requirements are met 🌟
$SHIBARMY team's goal is to create safe place for our community to hang out and feel safe while earning SHIB rewards.
We are ready to take this coin to the next level.
Now let's take a look at the Tokenomics!
🦮 8% SHIB reflection
🐶 1% Liquidity Pool tax
🤳🏻 1% Marketing tax
🐶 Total supply: 1B
🔒 The LP is locked for 36 Months,
🙋 Slippage: 10-12%
💎 Upcoming activities :
Collaborazioni con youtuber famosi;
📝 CONTRACT: 0xdd4febeaac2ee8a3e4c291158e9dea79a744e9c3
BUY HERE : https://pancakeswap.finance/swap?outputCurrency=0xdd4febeaac2ee8a3e4c291158e9dea79a744e9c3
LP LOCKED: https://deeplock.io/lock/0x4454dB082bAE68495f85d6ccbae1D8e04C159DC3
Renounced Ownership: https://bscscan.com/token/0xdd4febeaac2ee8a3e4c291158e9dea79a744e9c3#readContract
Get in before it's too late!
submitted by Shoddy_Department387 to CryptocurrencyICO [link] [comments]
2021.11.29 06:26 modnaz My first NFT. Agua Eléctrica.
2021.11.29 06:26 anthonychapman123 Popular Crypto Exchanges
The most used and at the same time the most reliable crypto exchange platform is Binance. Also, Binance extremely easy to use and learn. you can EARN A 15% COMMISSION DISCOUNT on each purchase, by registering with a [Popular Crypto Exchanges](https://accounts.binance.com/en/register?ref=77181558).
Binance 15% Referral Code: 77181558
submitted by anthonychapman123 to BinancePromoCodes1 [link] [comments]